Written in English
|Statement||by Douglas Kent Stevens.|
|The Physical Object|
|Pagination||xv, 228 leaves, bound :|
|Number of Pages||228|
Group sizes ranged from 1 in the μg/kg dose group to 6 in the μg/kg group (Personal communication). After 5 to 6 minutes of administering the higher dose, mice expressed decreased motor activity, altered gait, difficulty breathing and convulsions. Anatoxin-a was % lethal at the μg/kg after 10 minutes. The dose of the neurotoxin and an individual organism's physiology and behaviors may affect the health impact of exposure. The lethal dose (LD50) of anatoxin-a from mouse toxicology studies is – μg/kg body weight via intraperitoneal Cited by: 5. Anatoxin-a is a neurotoxin produced by various bloom-forming cyanobacteria. Although it shows widespread occurrence and is highly toxic to rodents, its mechanisms of action and biotransformation. 3The anatoxin-a group does not include the organophosphate toxin anatoxin-a(S) as it is a separate group. In the US, the most common member is thought to be anatoxin-a, and thus this toxin is listed specifically. There have been many documented reports of dog, bird and livestock deaths throughout the.
Biological factors affecting toxic response Chemicals in the diet, air or water Humans may be under medication with several drugs while exposed to an industrial chemical. The toxicity of a chemical in an organism may be increased or decreased by a simultaneous or consecutive exposure to another chemical in food. General toxicity study designs Jan Willem van der Laan Section on Safety of Medicines and Teratology. Centre for Biological Medicines and Medical Technology. factors (1/5)-erythropoietins (4/8)-hormones (5/8)-insulins (8/11)-interferons (4/6)-metabolic enzymes (6/8)-monoclonal antibodies. in Marketing. Karen created the book cover and provided other invaluable graphical and design help. Michael shaped and managed the production details of the book. We also want to acknowledge the help we received from other reviewers. Specific contributions are noted in individual chapters throughout the book. Factors Related to the Substance Form and Innate Chemical Activity. The form of a substance may have a profound impact on its toxicity especially for metallic elements, also termed heavy example, the toxicity of mercury vapor differs greatly from methyl mercury.
Anatoxin-a - Page 3 of 6. Summary of toxicity testing for health effects identified in the Health Standards Statute (): Even if testing for a specific health effect was not conducted for this chemical, information about that effect might be. Anatoxin-a, also known as Very Fast Death Factor (VFDF), is a secondary, bicyclic amine alkaloid and cyanotoxin with acute was first discovered in the early s in Canada, and was isolated in The toxin is produced by seven different genera of cyanobacteria and has been reported in North America, South America, Central America, Europe, Africa, Asia, and Oceania. Age and size of the animal are primary factors in toxicosis. Metabolism and translocation of xenobiotic agents are compromised by the underdeveloped microsomal enzyme system in young animals. Membrane permeability and hepatic and renal clearance capabilities vary with age, species, and health. The toxicity of an anatoxin-a(s) producer strain of Anabaena spiroides (ITEP) was estimated through sub-chronic bioassays with two clones of Daphnia similis (Labtox and Itajubá), both with intact cells and aqueous extracts of lyophilized material. Animals were grown as clonal cultures in the lab with mineral water plus 20% lake water. The concentrations used in the bioassays were , 0.